4) validity and the length of a test. Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1982). Again, measurement involves assigning scores to individuals so that they represent some characteristic of the individuals. 4. In reference to criterion validity, variables that one would expect to be correlated with the measure. Then a score is computed for each set of items, and the relationship between the two sets of scores is examined. Inter-rater reliability is the extent to which different observers are consistent in their judgments. AKIN /The Scales of Psychological Well-being: A Study of Validity and Reliability... • 745 Method Participants Validity and reliability studies of the SPWB were executed on three sample groups. The reliability and validity of a measure is not established by any single study but by the pattern of results across multiple studies. There are exceptions to this rule in the case of brief measurements when breadth of content is of primary interest in recapturing a longer scale (see example here). Psychological researchers do not simply assume that their measures work. This is typically done by graphing the data in a scatterplot and computing Pearson’s r. Figure 5.2 shows the correlation between two sets of scores of several university students on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, administered two times, a week apart. Early versions of the instrument were concerned primarily with the prediction of school achievement and academic learning on the basis of an overall IQ score. A split-half correlation of +.80 or greater is generally considered good internal consistency. The objective of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) in ataxia patients not suffering from autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). Simply, the validity of the measuring instrument represents the degree to which the scale measures what it is expected to measure. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale has a long history of successful usage as the foremost psychometric instrument for the assessment of cognitive ability. Reliability & Validity• Reliability - extent a measuringprocedure yields consistent results onrepeated administrations of the scale• Validity - degree a measuringprocedure accurately reflects or assessesor captures the specific concept that theresearcher is attempting to measureReliable  Valid 9. For example, the items “I enjoy detective or mystery stories” and “The sight of blood doesn’t frighten me or make me sick” both measure the suppression of aggression. The relevant evidence includes the measure’s reliability, whether it covers the construct of interest, and whether the scores it produces are correlated with other variables they are expected to be correlated with and not correlated with variables that are conceptually distinct. If at this point your bathroom scale indicated that you had lost 10 pounds, this would make sense and you would continue to use the scale. A criterion can be any variable that one has reason to think should be correlated with the construct being measured, and there will usually be many of them. For example, if you were interested in measuring university students’ social skills, you could make video recordings of them as they interacted with another student whom they are meeting for the first time. There are two distinct criteria by which researchers evaluate their measures: reliability and validity. Reliability is consistency across time (test-retest reliability), across items (internal consistency), and across researchers (interrater reliability). For example, intelligence is generally thought to be consistent across time. When researchers measure a construct that they assume to be consistent across time, then the scores they obtain should also be consistent across time. What is reliability? An example of an unreliable measurement is people guessing your weight. The extent to which people’s scores on a measure are correlated with other variables that one would expect them to be correlated with. C) known groups. Comment on its face and content validity. A measurement can be reliable without being valid. Here we consider three basic kinds: face validity, content validity, and criterion validity. This measure would be internally consistent to the extent that individual participants’ bets were consistently high or low across trials. Content validity is an assessment of how well the breadth of the construct has been assessed. The fact that one person’s index finger is a centimetre longer than another’s would indicate nothing about which one had higher self-esteem. But if it indicated that you had gained 10 pounds, you would rightly conclude that it was broken and either fix it or get rid of it. Although face validity can be assessed quantitatively—for example, by having a large sample of people rate a measure in terms of whether it appears to measure what it is intended to—it is usually assessed informally. when the criterion is measured at some point in the future (after the construct has been measured). This means that any good measure of intelligence should produce roughly the same scores for this individual next week as it does today. A general rule of thumb is that solid scientific instruments should have a Cronbach’s Alpha of at least .7. Method of assessing internal consistency through splitting the items into two sets and examining the relationship between them. So to have good content validity, a measure of people’s attitudes toward exercise would have to reflect all three of these aspects. Describe the kinds of evidence that would be relevant to assessing the reliability and validity of a particular measure. Book. One approach is to look at a split-half correlation. This is an extremely important point. The consistency of a measure on the same group of people at different times. In evaluating a measurement method, psychologists consider two general dimensions: reliability and validity. , Chanoknath About the authors Louangrath, P.I considered good internal consistency ), convergence is strong solid! Is noted that more finely graded scales do not simply assume that measures! – representing six different types of evidence that a measure is not established by any single study by. 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