/GS0 gs Accordingly, qualitative research has a more difficult task when trying to establish the reliability and validity of its data. x�b```f`` VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH H.I.L. For all secondary data, a detailed assessment of reliability and validity involve an appraisal of methods used to collect data [Saunders et al., 2009]. 2,3,4 . trailer 2143 0 obj <> endobj Validity also establishes the soundness of the methodology, sampling process, d… startxref Since reliability and validity are rooted in positivist perspective then they should be redefined for their use in a naturalistic approach. Despite the advantages of the case study method, its reliability and validity remain in doubt. %PDF-1.4 %���� Seale20 (1999) asserted that trustworthiness of a research study is based on the concepts of reliability and validity. H���I�����+�,`�վ � q(,��� �b���p����Q�q��$@���ʊ���:}�����G����_����t����/��^��O^�߿��Oz��~?����g��?N����K���S�k �������}���_�o�y��z�N��O?\�}Y�7a�}����w�/��}�}�=��l�?���M��W����n;}����?Z��. 0000001126 00000 n Table of Contents; Measurement; Qualitative Measures; Qualitative Validity; Qualitative Validity. Abstract . However, there is no single, coherent set of validity and reliability tests for each research phase in case study research available in the literature. However, validity and reliability are … h޴Yɒ����W�t4!�u�(�pȫ�i��p8@�Hb���g���2� A CRITERION FOR ASSESSING RELIABILITY Compared to validity, reliability is more easily assessed. Mohammed Ali Bapir Is it possible for qualitative research to be properly valid and reliable? Vol.IV No.1 2008 pp35-45 39 Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research To understand the meaning of reliability and validity, it is necessary to present the various definitions of reliability and validity given by many qualitative The use of reliability and validity are common in quantitative research and now it is reconsidered in the qualitative research paradigm. Although the tests and measures used to establish the validity and reliability of quantitative research cannot be applied to qualitative research, there are ongoing debates about whether terms such as validity, reliability and generalisability are appropriate to evaluate qualitative research. Frameworks for ensuring trustworthiness and rigour of qualitative research have been in existence for many years (Shenton 2004). Validity in Qualitative Research: A Processual Approach . The value of instrument reliability … f/���J/� :y�'�y�*���02`=w̑a�2��Rj)h/��B]5��a�"#���D�ڏ��}�!X��S�v�~�zg�ȿg�т��U�D��G� ��: Qualitative Research Determine whether you are going to use interviewing or observation as your data recording technique. What is Validity and Reliability in Qualitative research? It can be enhanced by detailed field notes by using recording devices and by transcribing the digital files. <<39CE5B841518F045915CAE05D8468039>]>> Tests to establish the validity and reliability of qualitative data are important to determine the stability and quality of the data obtained. Qualitative data is as important as quantitative data, as it also helps in establishing key research points. Validity and reliability of research and its results are important elements to provide evidence of the quality of research in the organizational field. �(&dX-� )BA���� ����������� 0��n�XZ���-�,���\DV��!5�P��8�D �$f7\V�62��$�yFn��m�$��S�(��ۛ_⨚i��Z��#���=�#YSt�Yozi;�a0@/���Q��Y�����h�����]�tym�.w_�D�ѯ�&K�9�ո�F�_���?���t�@��n���,��K/�U�w���ֺ��I��wזԾ��`���I�]����[;��Ȯgi�[˚'} �����-Uuv���:ѵn�L�G:�N�ݤ��f������e:���iZlb�4��D�iz��Z>��vgő����Z�8��ļ�붓w^��;���|(��(��o�~F� �=T0�&�,��g�?�[��S��^�*���K�fr�x�� G�W�m�g:�9Ш(2e(U��u����&��R�&�֪^ ;N���N���|�_\�#?�A���ƸAmL��ȵť�q0 �K��=��������lqq�ɰg� �rE�����`��V�fB!j��v�Wㆄ�\��}_�lUej1��?ʁُU�. 0000002113 00000 n 0000000900 00000 n Q trustworthiness. 2190 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<1C8D369C3C51574FA954BE063D2A7018>]/Index[2143 64]/Info 2142 0 R/Length 191/Prev 1444916/Root 2144 0 R/Size 2207/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream 51 11 And, in general, checking for validity of an instrument is more difficult than checking for reliability because validity is measuring data related to knowledge whereas reliability only concerns with the consistency of scores. Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia . Miles and Huberman (1994, p.278) suggested the following questions be asked in assessing the reliability of qualitative research designs: 1. 51 0 obj <> endobj Download Full PDF Package. endstream endobj 2144 0 obj <>/Metadata 114 0 R/OCProperties<>/OCGs[2191 0 R]>>/Outlines 340 0 R/PageLayout/SinglePage/Pages 2137 0 R/StructTreeRoot 391 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 2145 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/Pattern<>/Properties<>/Shading<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 2146 0 obj <>stream Establishing Construct Validity and Reliability: Pilot Testing of a Qualitative Interview for Research in Takaful (Islamic Insurance) Maryam Dikko . 0 2. They reject the basic realist assumption that their is a reality external … hޔT�n�0�>n�,�� �{�^0�۰���%�9�U����J�n];`�ER�A�B��4+�iΠH�!s�N����?�@R!���R�jׂ�B�'�������ֳ���n������o|����G���M�o��}�l^�37�%��-f��da��3DO���jb������I��q�?������ In Quantitative research, reliability refers to consistency of certain measurements, and validity – to whether these measurements “measure what they are supposed to measure”. Reliability and validity are concepts used to evaluate the quality of research. Establishing validity and reliability in qualitative research can be less precise, though participant/member checks, peer evaluation (another researcher checks the researcher’s inferences based on the instrument (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005), and multiple methods (keyword: triangulation), are convincingly used. These tive study is reliability, or the accuracy of an instrument. Qualitative Validity. %%EOF 0000000819 00000 n Things are slightly different, however, in Qualitative research.. ... , rigor and quality in qualitative paradigm. In other words, the extent to which a research instru-ment consistently has the same results if it is used in the same situation on repeated occasions. However, validity in qualitative research might have different terms than in quantitative research. endstream endobj 2147 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/TilingType 3/Type/Pattern/XStep 40.0/YStep 40.0>>stream the validity and reliability of quantitative research cannot be applied to qualitative research, there are ongoing debates about whether terms such as validity, reliability and generalisability are appropriate to evalu-ate qualitative research.2–4 In the broadest context these terms are applicable, with validity referring to the integ- Depending on their philosophical perspectives, some qualitative researchers reject the framework of validity that is commonly accepted in more quantitative research in the social sciences. �x���j���j؟���P���̦���$���. 0 endstream endobj startxref Reliability refers to the degree to which scale produces consistent results, when repeated measurements are made. Validity Reliability; Meaning: Validity implies the extent to which the research instrument measures, what it is intended to measure. Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research [Page 273] It is important for qualitative studies to emulate the scientific method in striving for empirical groundedness, generalizability, and minimization of bias (Hammersly, 1992). Validity and reliability of research and its results are important elements to provide evidence of the quality of research in the organizational field. hޤSmHSa~���t��[b�����)�U����B����F�iI]��F��)}-�k�2� Fundamental concepts of validity, reliability, and generalizability as applicable to qualitative research are then addressed with an update on the current views and controversies. Thus, the accuracy and consistency of the instrument form a significant aspect of the research methodology known as validity and reliability (27). %PDF-1.5 %���� 0000000516 00000 n 61 0 obj <>stream i+���t��I�C!��˙�7 e\%'L5�m��(��,tu�A� �^�$07m_%K�J��X�� ���R��*R�2U�rj�KG���;�*��!�Àb@�� b�*%6;�O< /Im0 Do Because, although the term ‘reliability’ is usually applied as a concept for testing or evaluating quantitative research, the idea is also used in all kinds of research. 1�9&�I���r}����߽��^��u|� ��˞���������O�ߌ���=��6�R�Ǿ���q�����&�s�Ͻ�(�P�.�8�&��/� q %%EOF �,�H��F�'�Ā������S�;�[�~��(��֓���25�mS횶ߠT⩪�ՏU�������_'����U�I�;�n�6�Ô���Ԫ� 0000002563 00000 n Reliability is about the consistency of a measure, and validity is about the accuracy of a measure. reliable. internal and external validity, reliability, and objectivity. Validity and reliability increase transparency, and decrease opportunities to insert researcher bias in qualitative research [Singh, 2014]. In a previous article we explored ‘bias’ across research designs and outlined strategies to … 0000001559 00000 n Reliability and Validity of Qualitative and Operational Research Paradigm Pak.j.stat.oper.res. Evaluating the quality of research is essential if findings are to be utilised in practice and incorporated into care delivery. Although the tests and measures used to establish the validity and reliability of quantitative research cannot be applied to qualitative research, there are ongoing debates about whether terms such as validity, reliability and generalisability are appropriate to evaluate qualitative research.2–4 In the broadest context these terms are applicable, with validity referring to the integrity … Validity relates to the appropriateness of any research value, tools and techniques, and processes, including data collection and validation (Mohamad et al., 2015). in research is essentially to ensure data are sound and replicable and that studies are accurate. Guba2 (1981), Guba and Lincoln3 (1982), and Lincoln and Guba1 (1985) refer to trustworthiness as something that evolved from 4 major concerns that relate to it in In the Reliability in qualitative research refers to the stability of responses to multiple coders of data sets. Are the research questions clear and are the features of the study design similar to them? 0000001030 00000 n It is critical to understand rigor in research. ~�v��/�e�o\��)�1gW�{���VM!���Un�����*s�Ϫ�g�K���n�dB��˄�,+���7�uc,;�;�H;m�j ���.�٬{X�^MR�PV%wI}�6M���t��}���dM�%�]PbID�Ȏ�o������hֵˤ�b�c�~ʘD_v�Y��D�w��-��7�����>�,�R�td���'��MX�/M���9�O�~������v�LY}t{��C������n��Р;OeH��/����a����9��Ȑ9��J"ol���C�/%F�T�Z�4+��FP@�H�B�Q��уҠ�%�L��ŵ���9�zR�e�τ¨��"���}ڋv�2������N���J����u�ᯐ��b3m7+6‡k���u1�R�Ȏm�,�yٵ]_m]�w�f�u�rX���埻����۸&,��!>,D��a��}�c�J ˪��N���:���Ϯ��\����~�L~ 0 1n{w Rigor of qualitative research continues to be challenged even now in the 21st century—from the very idea that qualitative research alone is open to questions, so with the terms rigor and trustworthiness. If a qualitative research project is reliable, it will help you understand a situation clearly that would otherwise be confusing. 0000002341 00000 n However, validity is better evidenced in quantitative studies than in qualitative research studies. Rigor is simply defined as the quality or state of being very exact, careful, or with strict precision8 or the quality of being thorough and accurate.9 The term qualitative rigor itself is an oxymoron, considering that qualitative research is a journey of explanation and discovery tha… Secondly, the process of validity and reliability in case study method are discussed and how they can be employed in the qualitative research paradigm. Download full-text PDF Read full-text. ���x������94 yS�r� However, validity is better evidenced in quantitative studies than in qualitative research studies. The rejection of reliability and validity in qualitative inquiry in the 1980s has resulted in an interesting shift for "ensuring rigor" from the investigator’s actions during the course of the research, to the reader or consumer of qualitative inquiry. reliability, validity and triangulation, if they are relevant research concepts, particularly from a qualitative point of view, have to be redefined in order to reflect the multiple ways of establishing truth. ... Two fundamental criteria of measurement in scientific research are reliability and validity [19,20,[43][44][45] ... qualitative research. 0000002640 00000 n study method. First, reliability, validity and triangulation as used in case study method are discussed as a way of providing a springboard to examining what these three terms mean. xref They indicate how well a method , technique or test measures something. A simple example of validity and reliability is an alarm clock that rings at … Instrument: A valid instrument is always reliable. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 3 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 3.1 INTRODUCTION In Chapter 2, the study’s aims of exploring how objects can influence the level of construct validity of a Picture Vocabulary Test were discussed, and a review conducted of the literature on the various factors that play a role as to how the validity level can be influenced. 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