The horn fly is a small blood feeding fly found on the shoulders, back and belly region of cattle. These species breed in fresh manure but each presents a very different management problem. Face flies are a type of agricultural pest that attack the faces of cattle and, to a lesser extent, horses. Horn flies feed on blood. Proper management of these fly populations reduces the number of potential vectors and the incidence of pinkeye may be minimized. The adult female flies tend to feed on secretions from the eyes, nostrils, and mouths of pastured cattle, causing extreme annoyance and allowing for the transmission of pinkeye and other eye diseases. The wet summer experienced throughout much of South Dakota has led to an increase in fly numbers, including face flies. Larvae develop in cow pats; adults feed on secretions from eyes and nose of cattle and horses and occasionally on blood exuding from horse fly bites. Female face flies are most readily attracted to grass-type manure and lay their eggs within 15 minutes after it is deposited. These flies are most active during the day and are typically a problem to pastured cattle, as they seldom enter barns or animal shelters. Face fly maggots develop in freshly deposited cattle manure. The face flies use their abrasive spongy … If you’re managing your fly population, but your neighbor isn’t, you may be getting “flies without borders” as they travel in search of a meal. Horn flies can affect performance and rate of gain as cattle spend more time under trees or in water looking for relief. The manure cannot be disturbed or they won’t reproduce. According to David Boxler, Extension educator-livestock Entomology at the University of Nebraska- there are mainly two key species of cattle flies that may concern you.They are the face fly and the horn fly.. Face fly. Face flies belong to the same genus, Musca, as the housefly. You might not be able to completely eliminate flies, but you can reduce their numbers among your cattle, choosing from a handful of means. “Another significant fly pest is the stable fly. For this reason, face flies primarily attack the head, including the eyes , nose, and mouth. As adults, females use their sponging proboscis with teeth to feed and scrape at wounds and around moist-mucus membranes of an animal’s face. Face flies are serious pests of cattle and may overwinter in homes or invade them during the summer. Overwintering face flies have habits similar to cluster flies … The adult flies will also feed on the hosts' blood through wounds such as horse-fly bites. “Animals aren’t going to graze as much and won’t grow as much,” he says. Face fly adults closely resemble houseflies – except they are slightly larger and darker. The four stage life cycle takes about 15 to 25 days. The face fly is similar to the closely related housefly but is slightly larger, ... On cattle and horses, they feed on secretions around the eyes, mouth and nostrils. Warble or gad flies (Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum), once a huge economic concern to the cattle industry, were practically eliminated with the advent of systemic avermectins and pour-on organophosphates. Instead, they have sucking mouthparts that they use to feed on ocular and nasal secretions. These aspects of its life history make management of face fly a very difficult task. Feedyards don’t have face flies because of disturbance of manure and ground due to cattle densities. Face Flies Musca autumnalis. The life cycle takes about 2 weeks. Face flies (Musca autumnalis) are one of the key contributors of pinkeye transmission in cattle (Figure 1). Feeding a little garlic powder to cattle does keep flies away and there are finally numbers to show it. They take some 24 to 38 blood meals per day. Face flies spend the night off the cattle. This is a plus. If a confined dry lot is adjacent to an irrigated or native range pasture with grazing cattle, confined animals could be bothered by face flies. Fortunately, we have a wide variety of fly control options. Simple design and efficient at capturing flies. HORN FLY. Face flies are strong flyers and can move significant distances. With an ongoing fly management program, however, both you and your cattle … Female face flies are most readily attracted to grass-type manure and lay their eggs within 15 minutes after it is deposited. Unlike the house fly, face flies are pests of cattle in pastures during the warm months. They closely resemble the common housefly, and only an expert can tell them apart. Face flies are found on range cattle throughout southern Canada and most of the USA. It develops at old hay-feeding sites,” says Justin Talley, Extension entomologist at Oklahoma State University. A variety of flies, including horn flies, face flies and stable flies, can have a major economic impact on beef cattle out on pasture or in a confined feedlot. Traditionally, face fly population densities on NC cattle are highest in the spring, but may be significantly reduced in number under dry conditions. Their eggs hatch quickly and larvae move in two to four days to soil and become adults in less than three weeks. Unlike many other flies that affect cattle, face flies do not have biting mouthparts. Unlike the House Fly, Face Flies are pests of cattle in pastures during the warm months. This article can help you make decisions about which products would fit your program, how to avoid causing insecticide resistance in flies, and ways to clean up your barn area to help control them. The face fly resembles the house fly and is sometimes difficult to differentiate. Go to greenpasturesfarm.net for more info. These aspects of its life history make management of face fly a very difficult task. Especially if you live in a humid area, where flies might be more abundant, flies are more than an annoyance to cattle. Horn flies and face flies are the primary pests of cattle here in Burke County. They require fresh manure to lay eggs. Face flies spend relatively little time on their host. Like the horn fly, the larvae of face flies develop in manure. The life cycle of a face fly is approximately 21 days. A larger proportion of face flies on the host will be females, as they have a higher need for protein provided by animal hosts. Measuring about 10 feet in length, the walk-through fly trap is constructed with a solid top and partially solid sides to create a dim interior. Face flies. Biology Face flies feed on the secretions of the eyes and nose for short periods of time; only a small percentage of the local face fly population may be found on animals at any one time. Hence, many of the products labeled for efficacious horn fly control indicate that they merely aid in face fly control. Face flies resemble house flies and feed on bodily secretions, usually around the eyes and mouth of cows. It is an old-fashioned walk-through fly trap Simmons tried at her own ranch that is doing a good job of controlling face and horn flies in her cattle. By Lee Townsend, Extension Entomologist. “This fly will cause cattle to stomp, stand in water, and bunch due to flies feeding on their legs. In Nebraska and elsewhere, there are three fly species that economically impact pastured cattle; horn fly, face fly and stable fly. The mouthparts consist of sponging labellae, and there are four longitudinal stripes on the abdomen. Both face flies and horn flies can travel several miles in search of cattle. Hence, many of the products labeled for efficacious horn fly control indicate that they merely aid in face fly control. Dewell says face flies can spread pink eye and other diseases, and horn flies … They remain on animals most of the time; taking frequent small blood meals per day. Face flies superficially look like house flies but they lay their eggs only on fresh cattle manure in fields. Some types of flies feed on cattle, causing anemia and affecting the production of milk. The face fly problem is real on cattle operations. The adult female face flies cluster around an animal’s eyes, mouth and muzzle, causing extreme irritation. An online poll of webinar attendees showed 83% reported problems with face flies on their farm or with their cattle. Treatment Guidelines for Pasture Flies, Horn Flies and Face Flies . As well as disturbance to feeding (especially to horses), face flies can transmit the eyeworm Thelazia rhodesi to cattle and horses, and the bacterium Moraxella bovis , which causes infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis ('pink eye') in cattle. Unlike many other flies that affect cattle, face flies do not have biting mouthparts. Beef cattle producers are strongly encouraged to assess their beef cattle herd for fly pressure and to do a good job of controlling these pests. It's all fenced in to provide a variety of grazing options. They attack the face in order to feed on the mucus and watery secretions that are found around the eyes of their victim. Forsburg intensively grazes 16 head of Angus on 50 acres, which includes 38 acres of native perennial pasture, silvopasture and woods. The face fly is a non-biting/sucking fly that feeds on animal secretions and fecal liquids. “It’s so easy,” she says. Flies of economic importance on western Canadian range are horn flies (Haematobia irritans); face flies (Musca autumnalis); and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans). You will often see a cluster of face flies around the eyes or mouth and nose of an animal. They are blood-sucking flies that stay on the shoulders and backs of cattle almost continuously. Because of the extreme irritation these flies cause, small populations can do a lot of damage. For this reason, face flies primarily attack the head, including the eyes , nose, and mouth. Face flies may transmit pathogens responsible for infecting the eye and causing pinkeye in cattle. The larvae develop within the dung and pupate in the surrounding soil. Biology Face flies feed on the secretions of the eyes and nose for short periods of time; only a small percentage of the local face fly population may be found on animals at any one time. In addition to being annoying to cattle, face flies mechanically vector Moraxella bovis, the principal causal agent of bovine pinkeye or infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Face flies require areas with higher levels of humidity and rainfall than our other major fly species. By contrast, male Face Flies feed only on nectar and manure. Instead, they have sucking mouthparts that they use to feed on ocular and nasal secretions. Horn fly control can mean an additional 12 to 20 pounds of weight per calf over the summer months and can result in less weight loss per nursing cow as well. You will often see a cluster of face flies around the eyes or mouth and nose of an animal. Fly control is of major importance to cattle producers. During extremely hot weather or when it rains, they may move to the protected underside of the animal. Horn Flies are about half the size of house flies and are dark gray. Populations tend to peak in late summer. According to David Boxler, Extension educator-livestock Entomology at the University of Nebraska- there are mainly two key species of cattle flies that may concern you.They are the face fly and the horn fly.. Face fly. Horn flies, face flies, stable flies, ticks, lice and mites are the major external parasites in beef cattle. 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