Once established, little maintenance is needed except cutting back in winter to about one-third of its size and removing most of the old dead leaves. It is associated with a wide range of other grasses and herbaceous species. The spikelets (Spikelet - consists of one or more florets and is the basic unit of the inflorescence in grasses) are clustered with several sterile spikelets surrounding a single fertile spikelet that bears a large, black, geniculate and twisted awn (Awn - an elongated bristle-like appendage attached to the apex, back or base of the glume, lemma or palea). It also serves as a food source for several avian species, including the long-tailed widowbird. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Kangaroo Grass (Themeda triandra) - 30 Pure Seeds at the best online prices at ebay! Burning in the early autumn once every few years can assist in retaining T. triandra dominance. During this time plants produce large, distinctive, red-brown spikelets carried on branched stems. Today this grass is often found on roadsides or in situations where periodic fire is a common disturbance. Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) was one of the more widespread grassy understorey dominants. TOLERANCES. There seems to be little association between abundance of T. triandra and a specific soil type. The seeds are edible and can be ground into a flour. The flowering period is from December to February. A very popular grass, widely distributed and common from Africa to tropical and subtropical Asia to Australasia. Common names: red grass (Eng. Finches are fond of the seeds. Themeda triandra is a very hardy, evergreen, tall, tufted grass with foliage in many shades of green that turn reddish when older. • A tussock grass with roots to more than 100 cm depth. The main factors that determine the success of direct seeding indigenous species are seed quality and correct site preparation. A more interventionist approach of introducing seed onto the site may be needed in some situations. It is a well-known grazing grass, forming, where dominant, the red grass or rooigrasveld (grasslands) in parts of South Africa. Themeda triandra is a tufted perennial reaching a height of 1.5 metres with a spread of 0.5 metres. Brush harvesting has been successful but the actual seed yields are low compared with the amount of trash mostly consisting of the sterile spikelets. The blue weeping foliage will flower in … Login to add your Comment Seed plants of southern Africa: families and genera. The long awns of the spikelet twirl when wet, and drive the seed … T. triandra seedlings develop relatively slowly following germination. Not registered yet? The ligule (Ligule - a membrane or hairs found on the inner (adaxial) surface of the leaf-blade/sheath junction) is a rim of hairs and the leaves are folded in the bud. Reaching around 20cm The cultivar T. australis ‘mingo’ makes an excellent ground cover plant for low traffic areas. The basal parts of the tuft are usually compressed. It produces spear-shaped seeds that are activated by water, either through increased humidity or when it rains. Optimum seed storage, across the temperature range -15°C to 70°C, was achieved at 25°C (± 2°C), at which temperature seed was held for 40 months. The spikelets (grass flowers) form wedge-shaped, usually hanging clusters that may or may not be hairy, with long black or white hairs. Strelitzia 10. Grasses of southern Africa. Because the seeds are fairly large (each seed weighs about 10 mg), they will emerge from about 15 mm in most soil types. If material has been harvested with a forage harvester to be used as seed containing mulch then cleaning is not necessary. The seeds that follow are also a beautiful feature of this grass. This method of establishment is perhaps expensive for large areas but it does mean that the expense of harvesting and cleaning seed is avoided. Most T. triandra seed samples have some level of dormancy. There are about 30 species worldwide with about 5 being found in Australia. However, this is changing as more and more people are becoming aware of the beauty of grasses and their usefulness in attracting animals, especially birds, to their gardens. T.triandra(syn. Br.) The pendulous, purple-red flower spikes are most attractive from September to June. The flowering period is from December to February. It is important, therefore, that available seed be used efficiently by maximising germination and establishment. Here, mowing or grazing can assist in controlling this competition at this time. Themeda triandra. Themeda triandra Characteristics & applications • A robust, long-lived, summer-active perennial producing dense, upright foliage. This grass is widespread in South Africa, growing in undisturbed grasslands to savanna, in areas of average to high rainfall. Primary dormancy will usually break down slowly with storage periods of up to 12 months or more. Guide to the grasses of southern Africa. An established plant can be obtained from a nursery or, depending on the rains in November or December, whole culms with inflorescences can be cut and laid on the ground. This species can be sown at about 1 g/m² which would mean about 100 seeds/m² if each seed weighs about 10 mg. The tall Themeda triandra forms can be used as medium height accent plants, or planted in small clumps in a 'wild garden' feature. 2000. After the rains in February and March, seeds can be planted but these will only germinate the following spring. mail to indiantreepix@googlegroups.com or itpmods@googlegroups.com 2. Older leaves tend to have a red/brown appearance. It is native to India, Nepal, and Malaysia. The seed is eaten in times of famine. The awns (bristles) must be present in the inflorescences while the rest of the stems will act as a mulch, which is important for germination of the seed. Our seeds are harvested from 99% weed free and other grass strains. Themeda triandra, commonly known as kangaroo grass, is a native perennial grass that grows widely across Australia. Themeda triandra Click to Enlarge: Themeda triandra Click to Enlarge: Themeda triandra Click to Enlarge: Themeda triandra Click to Enlarge: Themeda triandra Leaf|Seed The seed head is relatively large, often reddish in colour with a drooping appearance. About 50 g of seed/100 m drill row will give this seed density. Fishing closures, restrictions and permits, Volunteer non-commercial kangaroo shooting, NSW Hunting Stakeholder Consultation Group, Zoonoses - Animal diseases that can infect people, Forest contractor training and certification scheme, Grassed up - guidelines for revegetating with Australian native grasses, Astrebla pectinata (Barley Mitchell grass), Austrodanthonia bipartita (Wallaby grass), Austrodanthonia richardsonii (Wallaby grass), Dichanthium sericeum (Queensland bluegrass), Microlaena stipoides (Microlaena or Weeping grass), Paspalidium jubiflorum (Warrego summer grass). Themeda triandra Seed Germination Abstract viability decreases with increased storage time. The attractive foliage and seed heads, its adaptability and low maintenance requirement has prompted growing interest in its use from landscape architects. Themeda quadrivalvis is a species of grass known by the common names grader grass, habana grass, and kangaroo grass, not to be confused with Themeda triandra, which is also known as kangaroo grass. In eastern Australia flowering occurs throughout summer from December to late April. In Lesotho and bordering areas it is used sometimes for thatching and some basketry. Autumn is generally considered the best sowing time as soil surfaces tend not to dry out as quickly as they do in spring. The twisted awns are relatively easily removed from the fertile spikelets and the caryopses are usually retained within the dark, hairy glumes (Glume - the empty bracts at the base of a grass spikelet; usually two glumes are present). Themeda Themeda. T. triandra is the only species occurring in Africa, but it is also found in Asia and Australasia. This dormancy can usually be broken by subjecting dry seeds to diurnal alternating temperatures of 20°C–60°C for about a month. The seeds that follow are also a beautiful feature of this grass. You can purchase our high-quality florets for a … However, for seed production there is some evidence to suggest that the addition of low rates of nitrogen (50 kg/ha) can increase seed heads by 45%. ... Hydroscopic awns, low numbers of seeds/kg, spikelets predominantly sterile. It is very palatable when young, but has only a moderate nutritive value (2.8 to 12.4% crude protein). Show All Show Tabs kangaroo grass General Information; Symbol: THTR8 ... Themeda australis (R. This transition can occur over 1–2 days if conditions are hot and dry. Although the grass grows in any type of soil, it prefers clay and soils with high organic content. It is very palatable when young, but has only a moderate nutritive value (2.8 to 12.4% crude protein). It can also be found in many other places as an introduced species and often a noxious weed. T. triandra seed has been used as a famine food in Africa. Although clay soils with a high organic content are preferred, if Themeda is occurring naturally in your area, you could try to grow it. Seed cleaning is not a difficult exercise but large amounts of trash must be processed to obtain a relatively small amount of seed. This resilient grass is well adapted to the variable Australian climate as it can utilise rainfall and soil nutrients efficiently. The leaves are up to 50 cm long and 3 mm wide and the leaf blades bear sparse hairs. The long awns of the spikelet twirl when wet, and drive the seed into the ground. Genus. & Crook, A.O. perennial) grass usually growing less than 1 m tall. Themeda triandra Forssk. T. triandra - T. triandra is a dense, clump-forming, evergreen grass with keeled, linear, grey- to blue-green leaves and racemes of reddish-brown flower spikelets, primarily throughout summer.. Themeda triandra is: Evergreen This is a tufted perennial grass which is very variable in appearance and size, ranging from 0.3-1.5 m in height. Leaf-blades 15-50 cm long; 2-5 mm wide, green or sometimes bluish, folded with a more or less clasping base, becoming more or less flat along the blade towards the acutely pointed tip. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. The meaning of the genus name Themeda is obscure, but it is Arabic and appears to have something to do with water or possibly the lack thereof. Forage harvesters have also been used to successfully harvest kangaroo grass seed when the harvested material containing the seed is to be spread as a mulch rather than for the preparation of pure seed samples. T. australis) is the most common member of the genus in Australia. Acocks' Notes: key grasses of South Africa. Themeda triandra is a very hardy, evergreen, tall, tufted grass with foliage in many shades of green that turn reddish when older. Themedais a genus of grasses occurring in Australia, Asia and Africa. Chippindall, L.K.A. Weed control is easiest in areas with low soil fertility so that the use of fertilisers in the establishment of kangaroo grass stands is not recommended. An extremely widely distributed species, occurring throughout Australia. Kangaroo grass appears to be most common in situations where grazing disturbance is low, water runs on areas and where fires occur periodically. In Australia it has been used as an ornamental and landscape plant. The spikelets are also awned, that is they have long stiff bristle-like projections. If the seed is broadcast then it should be lightly covered with harrows. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Fertile spikelets are indicated by the black, twisted awn and if the awns are no longer present in the seed heads, then the seeds have all fallen. It is also occasionally used as an ornamental plant. The attractive fo… It is very important to protect them from competition from annual weeds during this establishment phase. In some parts of Africa it is used for thatching, but the forms found in southern Africa tend to be flimsy and not durable enough. Species. Grasses of the eastern Free State. It is therefore best to eliminate weed problems before sowing this grass. When used as a landscape planting for colour contrast, little maintenance is needed once the area has become dominated by T. triandra. Description. The Natal Witness, Pietermaritzburg. 1. Themeda triandra could be grown in native cottage gardens, rockeries or as a border in garden beds. Themeda triandra – Kangaroo Grass – Buy seeds at rarepalmseeds.com Seeds for sale starting at € 5.60. For small areas like this Themeda triandra crop at our seed production area, seed can be hand broadcast onto a cultivated surface. The species Themeda australis syn T. triandra will reach around 1.5m and is found in all Australian states. Themeda triandra. Van Oudtshoorn, F. 1999. T. triandra has an extraordinarily wide distribution range from the mountains of New Guinea to Tasmania and from the east to the west of the Australian continent. It is very widely adapted and grows on soils ranging from sand to heavy clays. kangaroo grass (Themeda triandra) is a moderately-sized long-lived (i.e. It is often common in areas where moisture collects and grazing is light, such as along roadsides or railway lines. Hagon and Chan (1977) found higher levels of germination in clay than sandy soils. T. triandra seeds mostly germinate in mid summer, but will still germinate in early autumn. The 'plant indigenous' drive and the trend to 'wild gardens' in garden design has changed this. Finches are fond of the seeds. Some forms have bright yellow culms (stems). World-wide, there are 18 species of Themeda occurring in the tropics and subtropics of the Old World, mainly in Asia. The Plants Database includes the following 6 species of Themeda . Paper pulp can also be made from the culms (stems). T. triandra occurs in both grasslands and grassy woodlands as well as under grassy forests. T. australis (kangaroo grass), for revegetation purposes may always be limited given the biological constraints on its production. Kangaroo grass is a tufted perennial up to about 1.5 m tall with individual tussocks up to 0.5 m across. Its individual flower spikelets are moderately-sized (6-14 mm long), hairless (i.e. Themeda triandra is a very important and well-known grazing grass that is palatable especially when young. Flowering time is from October to July. Themeda arguens Christmas grass Themeda japonica . T. triandra occurs on a wide variety of soils from sandy soils to heavy clays. It also grows in soils of low to moderately high pH. • Characterised by seed heads of unique form and russet colour on erect stems ~40-150 cm tall. If a forage harvester has been used, then drying a large mass of material sometimes proves difficult. Themeda triandra ‘Quokka’ – Kangaroo Grass The very compact habit coupled with interestingly textured foliage, seed heads and flowers of this iconic Australian native grass are its defining features. 1976. Moffett, R. 1997. Approaching optimum harvest time is associated with a change in crop colour from greenish to yellowish brown. The species name tri (three) and andr (man) is Greek, referring to the three male spikelets surrounding the bisexual spikelet in each cluster. Rooigras, Kangaroo grass, Red grass , Red oat grass, Themeda australis. T. triandra will not tolerate continuous grazing. Themeda triandra is an indicator of the veld being in good condition. T. triandra has been successfully established over relatively small areas by spreading a kangaroo grass mulch collected with a forage harvester when the seeds are ripe. Ligule, a ciliolate membrane later splitting into a rim of short hairs with some longer, margin… The plant is sometimes gathered from the wild for local use as thatch and medicine. Themeda triandra is a tufted perennial that can grow to 1.5 m tall and 0.5 m across. T. triandrawill not tolerate continuous grazing. Themeda triandra seeds mostly germinate in mid summer, but will still germinate in early autumn. Known Hazards Wilted culms contain hydrocyanic acid and are a danger to livestock Today this grass is often found on roadsides or in situations where periodic fire is a common disturbance. hispid), and its seeds are topped … UNIQWA, Phuthaditjhaba. In southern Australia weed control in late winter/early spring appears to be critical in the survival of newly established plants. Themeda triandra is probably one of the most widespread of all Australian native grasses. To date, not much is known about the cultivation of our indigenous grasses in gardens, and only some nurseries have started selling them. The sterile spikelets are retained on the seed heads and it is often difficult to determine whether the seeds have actually fallen or not. Botanical name. Themeda triandra “Mingo” is a ground covering form with blue foliage and will reach a height of 20 centimetres with a spread of 60 centimetres. SOILS . The young growth is palatable to stock. Plant: A native, tufted, perennial warm season grass. Leaves are 10-50 cm long and 2-5 mm wide, green to grey and dry to an orange-brown in summer. It produces distinct large red … By contrast, Sindel et al. Lyn FishNational Herbarium, PretoriaApril 2004, SA Distribution: Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West, Northern Cape, Western Cape, Flowering season: Spring, Early Summer, Late Summer, Autumn. The mulch is spread evenly on the ground immediately after harvest, or up to winter and left for about 6 months for the seeds to drop out and presumably penetrate the soil because of the hygroscopic (Hygroscopic - responds (twists or opens) to moisture changes) awns. grass Stipagrostis namaquensis steek kweek seed head & stalk 29,50 R 400,00 grass Stipagrostis obtusa kortbeen boesmangras seed head & stalk 2,00 R 400,00 grass Themeda triandra rooigras clean 1,40 R 7 000,00 grass Themeda triandra rooigras on stalks uncleaned 0,10 R 400,00 grass Themeda triandra rooigras heads 0,40 R 1 000,00 In other circumstances the addition of fertiliser appears not to benefit T. triandra. Themeda triandra ‘Mingo’ Themeda triandra ‘Mingo’ This entry was posted in Plant Database on 28/12/2015 by carolyn. In these circumstances, the fibre mulch should be at least 20 mm thick for the best results. Collins, Harare (Salisbury). With seed banks in various locations across Australia and the owner of one of Australia’s largest and most established seed merchants, Nindethana, we are in a unique position to be able to provide a diverse range of high quality native seed for a wide variety of restoration projects. glabrous) or slightly hairy (i.e. ); rooigras (Afr.). Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) More topics in this section. Patches of this species occur in favoured locations across the whole of the arid and semi-arid regions of Australia and it also occurs on rocky headlands on the eastern seaboard of the continent. Briza Publications, Pretoria. Click here to register. It is also known to be resistant to fire, the resistance increasing when burnt regularly, but only if rested after fire and if overgrazing does not occur. High drought tolerance; High heat tolerance Themeda triandra is probably one of the most widespread of all Australian native grasses. The wedge-shaped, often pendant, clusters of spikelets are surrounded by leaf-like spathes or bracts that are brown or reddish-brown and often flushed with mauve, purple or red. For any mistake in identification or for becoming efloraofindia e-group member (for contributing towards building of efloraofindia or otherwise), pl. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria. Themeda triandra naturally grows over an extensive geographical range on many soil types , and adaptations to a wide variety of soils might be expected. The pendulous, purple-red flower spikes are most attractive from September to June. Cleaned T. triandra seed will flow relatively easily through conventional seed boxes without bridging or the seeds clogging the delivery tubes. ... Themeda anathera . Kangaroo grass can still be seen in remnant plains grasslands and sclerophyll, redgum and box woodlands as well as open grassy forests. Then if the mulch is burnt in late winter while the soil is still moist, then the seeds will germinate as the soil warms up in the spring. The journals of the early explorers and settlers make frequent reference to this grass. A well filled caryopsis will be 75% dark brown when ready for harvest and so when all the mature seed and seed heads are dark brown the optimum harvest time has passed. • Occurs across Australia from the arid inland to the Zacharias, P.J.K. Ecology. It is also known to be resistant to fire, the resistance increasing when burnt regularly, but only if rested after fire and if overgrazing does not occur. Direct seeding is easy! In South Africa, grasses in general and indigenous grasses in particular, have seldom been used in gardens. Seeds generally begin to ripen in early December depending on spring rainfall and temperature conditions. The seed supply of Themeda triandra, syn. Press wheels to firm the soil around the seed are an advantage. At this time, winter plants will tend to overshadow the semi-dormant T. triandra. Adaptation: Will grow on a wide range of soil types from well drained sandy to clay texture soils. Nodes hairless. Where T. triandra plants are established as feature tussocks in a garden, little maintenance is necessary apart from weed control. If T. triandra is sown in drill rows, seeds should be about 20 mm apart to give a rapid cover within the rows. Other names. Because the seeds are fairly large (each seed weighs about 10 mg), they will emerge from about 15 mm in most soil types. Stems: Culms erect; up to 1.5m tall, usually unbranched, smooth, often becoming golden-coloured at maturity. Our Kangaroo Grass seed and florets come from a high quality, pure strain of Thermeda triandra, virtually not interfered with since population of the area. Themeda triandra is an indicator of the veld being in good condition. In nature, the presence of this grass signifies climax grassland that is in good condition. 1990. Seeds should be dried at relatively low temperatures immediately after harvest. If drying is not practicable, then the mulch should be spread as soon as possible. Its leaves are 10-50 cm long and 2-5 mm wide, green to grey drying to an orange brown in summer. If banks or sloping areas are to be sown then hydromulching is an effective method with kangaroo grass seed added into the seed mix. Language: EnglishDeutschEspañolFrançais This is a lovely green to blue-green tufted grass that is often flushed with pink and turns red with age. The journals of the early explorers and settlers make frequent reference to this grass. Plants from higher altitudes tend to be shorter and dark purple, whereas at lower altitudes plants are often lighter coloured and flushed only with purple. Autumn is generally considered the best sowing time as soil surfaces tend not to dry out as quickly as they do in spring. Other species. Leaves: Leaves growing from the base of the stems. Leistner, O.A. Themeda triandra : Source: Poaceae update, database (version Sept. 2010) Acquired: 2010 : Notes: Poaceae update for ITIS, in cooperation with NatureServe, and based on the Catalogue of New World Grasses database and other sources : Reference for: Themeda triandra : Publication(s): Author(s)/Editor(s): Publication Date: Article/Chapter Title: 2-5 mm wide, green to grey drying to an orange brown in summer an. 12.4 % crude protein ) are retained on the seed head is relatively large, distinctive, red-brown spikelets on... 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