It applies to typical DC circuits and to some simple AC circuits (single-phase AC with resistive loads, not motor loads, power factor = 1.0, line reactance negligible). I didn’t like most of the diagrams already out there, so I made my own. The wire sizing guide below provides the minimum wire size needed to limit voltage drops to 5% at a given distance in a 12V or 24V system. inverter, fridge, etc.) This is part 1 of a 2 part series.Choosing the right cable size for your DC electrical project is important, since a wire that is too small can overheat and possibly start a fire. Please feel welcome to bookmark/digg/xmark this page now and have access to the tool whenever you need it – share it with friends, colleagues, anyone who has to deal with DC electrical cables. In these cases you may be better off with the power source where you need the power. 20°C. Auto cable cross-sectional areas are from the manufacturer Tycab. Cable Size Selection Chart . Review Part 1 for more information on choosing wire size for a DC circuit. DCC Systems are rated at about 2 Amps to 10 Amps. Calculating wiring size. The electrical wire size is crucial in thi… Cables & Wiring The most popular is the 5 Amps. AWG general rules of thumb - for every 6 gauge decrease, the wire diameter doubles and for every 3 gauge decrease, the cross sectional area doubles. Any wire size or circuit protection tentatively selected with this tool should be reviewed for adequacy, before installation, by a professional applying the applicable industry standards. You want that power in your batteries! This chart is useful for finding the correct wire size for any voltage, length, or amperage flow in any AC or DC circuit. Aug 9, 2014 - dc wire sizing chart | what s the function of running negative wires to the. Wire Length - meter. Maximum Ampacity (Current Capacity) for Wire and Cable; Off-Grid Solar Electric System Calculator; Recommended Inverter Cables Sizing and Breakers or Fuses; Schematic: Wiring Solar Panels in Series and Parallel; Wire Sizing Tool for 12, 24 and 48 Volt DC Systems; Batteries - Series and Parallel Connections; Related Products. If you want to limit your losses to 2% simply divide the distance by 2.5. 50°C. A detailed description of each conductor property is described below Table 1. This chart is based on a 5A maximum current on the bus. See the chart below to determine the maximum run with each gauge wire at a specific voltage. Part 1 showed how to choose the correct wire size for DC circuits.. U.S. Coast Guard regulations, and ABYC E-11.10.1.1.1, require every ungrounded wire except those in … Simply enter the current (amps), voltage and the length of wire … Undersized wire is the single biggest mistake made when installing our heaters. For 6 volt automotive systems typically a wire gauge 2 sizes larger than what is shown should be used. Common sizes include 14-, 12-, 10-, 8-, 6-, and 2-gauge wire. If you know the voltage and current draw of devices you are wiring you can calculate the appropriate wire size. Page 1 of 7 - Everything you need to know about car audio - posted in General Audio - Cant find a category for your question? Automotive & Marine Wire Sizing Chart. 50°C. AWG: In the American Wire Gauge (AWG) system, wire size diameters can be … Trolling Motor Wire Gauge: A complete guide . Electrical wire sizes & gauges: These Tables of Electrical Service Entry Cable Sizes, Electrical Circuit Wire Diameters, Circuit Ampacity, Allowable Voltage Drop, & Wire Size Increase based on Run Length assist in determining the electrical service size or other required electrical wire sizes at buildings. This online cable size calculator tool makes it easy to establish the correct size of cables for any DC power system. Cable Size Selection Chart – NEC Ampacities Chart for How to Size a Cable. 90°C. For a 48V system multiply the distance taken from the 24V chart by 2. This chart is useful for finding the correct wire size for any voltage, length, or amperage flow in any AC or DC circuit. These AC circuits are single-phase with resistive loads and not motor loads. In low voltage systems (12, 24, 36 and 48VDC) the overriding concern is power loss. To function properly, these heaters must be wired with the proper size wire, and  grounded properly, this cannot be stressed enough. This chart works for any voltage or voltage drop, American (AWG) or metric (mm2) sizing. The wire size calculator will give you a very simple and quick solution to the problem of calculating the size of wires and cables for pump applications in golf courses, landscape projects, and agriculture. The following steps and examples should help you understand the basic rules of how to size a cable per the NEC: Step 1 – Size the overcurrent device in accordance with 210.20(A) and 215.3. For a 10A booster, move to the next larger gauge (smaller number). Common sizes include 14-, 12-, 10-, 8-, 6-, and 2-gauge wire. This means that the radio must use at least #14 gauge wire. voltage drop for DC loads is 5% of nominal battery voltage. If you want to put all of these on a single circuit, you’ll need to know the current. This chart is based on a 5A maximum current on the bus. A detailed description of each conductor property is described below Table 1. Ampacity for 30°C and 60°C (‘engine room) ambient temperatures. Looking at the wire size chart, #18 wire will support a maximum of 10 Amps, but we want to have a wire that is rated for at least 2 times the required current. Need to know how thick a cable needs to be for a solar panel, fridge, battery, or motor? The chart is calculated on no more than 2% voltage drop across the wire distance. As we have established above, how you identify electrical cable size is through the size of wire it houses e.g .1.5mm cable houses 1.5mm wire. Table 1 lists the AWG sizes for electrical cables / conductors. Cable sizes are particularly important for low voltage battery cables, solar panels, wind turbines and load cables. It can also be used for American (AWG) or metric (mm 2) sizing. print 12 Volt Electric Circuit Chart. The American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC) publishes charts with valuable detail to help experienced electrical installers determine what wire size they need. Using these two numbers, Amps and length, locate the nearest gauge value in the chart below. This chart, though, is a little different. The chart shown is for a 1/2 volt drop running one way. Also note that 00, 000, and 0000 gauges (generally refered to as 2/0, 3/0 and 4/0 are progressively larger in size and are represented in the Wire Size Calculator as -1, -2, and -3. Maximum … size is 40 and the largest is 0000 (4/0). WIRE CHART 12 Volt acceptable cable size (mm†) Cable Length (metres) Amps 1 2 5 10 15 … the ins and outs of electric trolling motors. Easy calculator to size DC cables based on their length, current, and citcuit voltage. To determining the size of wire three things are needed, the length of the run, the amount of current that will flow and the amount of voltage loss. Voltage Drop = (WL x 2) x R x LC / 1000. Determine how many amps will be flowing to your appliance. Electrical voltage is the separation of electric charges and the current flow due to the directed movement of electrons between two points. A battery  that is required to operate continuously at 0 degrees F will provide about 60% of its capacity. Follow the steps to choose fuse amperage and a fuse holder or fuse block. Wire Sizing Chart and Formula. This is the second in a two part series of technical briefs on circuit protection. A 4% loss however is not recommended by DC Thermal and will result in less than desirable results with our heaters. double the distance if 4% loss is acceptable; multiply distance by 2 for 24 volts; multiply distance by 4 for 48 volts; Example - Maximum Length of Wire. This can be helpful if doing your own repairs or adding custom wiring to make sure each circuit is … Wire gauge depends on CURRENT and LENGTH of the wire.This means even if your friend installed the same components (e.g. Wire Sizing Chart and Formula. If you’re not sure what wire size you need, try our DC cable sizing calculator – based on your input of how many amps will be running over what distance, the calculator will provide you with a guide in mm 2, which is a cross-sectional measurement and the sizing we use for cabling. The distance is twice your length. The size of wire required for a given task depends on the voltage being used, the amount of amps required and also the distance that power is being transmitted. Wire Length Table 24V Power Required The recommended maximum distances for 24volts, ac or dc, is the cell below the wire size, adjacent to watts (VA) or required current. We distill the information on these charts to a more manageable size for installers and boat owners alike. This wire size calculator will calculate the appropriate wire gauge for a circuit based on amps, voltage, distance, and load. Don’t worry, calculating the wire size is made easy with the wire size guides below. Circuit Type . In addition to wire size, the table provides values load (current) carrying capacity, resistance and skin effects. There’s no sense using your expensive PV wattage to heat wires. Wire must not be sized merely for the ampacity, because there is less tolerance for voltage drop (except for very short runs). Home Decor. Wire must not be sized merely for the ampacity, because there is less tolerance for voltage drop (except for very short runs). Blue Sea Systems expressly disclaims responsibility for any use of this calculator that results in inadequate wire size or circuit protection. This is a calculator for the estimation of the voltage drop of an electrical circuit based on the wire size, distance, and anticipated load current. To purchase GHL Hook up Wire, Click HERE. An example would be: A 12 volt heater, pulling 40 Amps, using a 10 gauge wire, could be ran a maximum of 2.8 feet. The only consideration when using larger wire is the difficulty in handling the wire. Amps @ 13.8 Volts: LENGTH OF WIRE American Wire Gauge (AWG) 0 … It is always OK to use a larger wire size. You have a problem with the voltage dropping significantly over longer runs of wire. Step 5. Wire sizing per ABYC standards for 12V DC, 105°C copper wire conductor. Article from stevemeadedesigns.com. The American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC) publishes charts with valuable detail to help experienced electrical installers determine what wire size … Automotive & Marine Wire Sizing Chart. Wire gauge refers the physical size of the wire, rated with a numerical designation that runs opposite to the diameter of the conductors—in other words, the smaller the wire gauge number, the larger the wire diameter. Wire gauge refers the physical size of the wire, rated with a numerical designation that runs opposite to the diameter of the conductors—in other words, the smaller the wire gauge number, the larger the wire diameter. Voltage loss or drops through incorrectly sized cables are one of the most common reasons for low voltage (12V, 24V or 48V) system faults. Universal Wire Sizing Chart Apart from the above formula, you can use the following steps for any voltage or voltage drop. Choosing the Fuse Amperage. For an 8A booster, move to the next larger gauge (smaller number). the circular piece of wire. You are hereTutorials / DC Electrical / Wire and Wiring / DC Wiring Chart. Wire Length - feet. For most DC circuits, particularly between the PV modules and the batteries, we try to keep the voltage drop to 3% or less. Because AC circuit wire sizing is a bit simpler than DC, we'll start there. The chart and the formula on this page are provided to help you in selecting the best cost / power loss compromise. DC Power Cable Sizing – Online Calculator. Temperature correction factors for various ambient air temperatures per NEC standards. 60°C. The numbers represent the maximum number of feet that wire can be ran without exceeding a 2 % loss. You can use this value in the fuse size chart above to determine the minimum wire size required. For example, a 1V drop from 12V causes 10 times the power loss of 1V drop from 120V. info. For most DC circuits, particularly between the PV modules and the batteries, we try to keep the voltage drop to 3% or less. . The resistances and skin depth noted are for copper conductors. Cable Conversion Table Home Maintenance. 100°C. The n gauge wire diameter d n in inches (in) is equal to 0.005in times 92 raised to the power of 36 minus gauge number n, divided by 39:. Here’s an example: Say you bought a cold cathode kit for each side of the dash (2 Transformers), 5 superflux LED’s for your vents, and a 4.7″ Flexible LED strip for your center console. WIRE GAUGE W(VA)/Amps 8awg 10awg 12awg 14awg 16awg 18awg 20awg 22awg 24awg 26awg These guidelines are based on Technical Requirements and Best Practices. 80°C. millimeters, so a 50 gauge metric wire would be 5 mm in diameter. The following chart may look familiar if you’ve already been trying to find an answer to the question”How do I size my camper van wires”. There’s no sense using your expensive PV wattage to heat wires. The wire size chart below shows allowable ampacities of insulated conductors rated up to … This electron movement always causes heat. A Find the MAXIMUM FUSE AMPERAGE by following your AWG wire size (from Part 1 of this series) across the chart. The wire has resistance, so there will be voltage drop along the length of the wire. Quality marine wire, as specified by ABYC standards, will always be stranded rather than solid, and always tin-plated copper. 100°C. as you, you most likely need different wire gauge. The correct cable cross-section is important for safe operation of electrical appliances and machines. Where: WL = Wire Length R = Resistance LC = Load Current SV = Source Voltage If you want to limit your losses to 2% simply divide the distance by 2.5. For 6 volt automotive systems typically a wire gauge 2 sizes larger than what is shown should be used. In low voltage systems (12, 24, 36 and 48VDC) the overriding concern is power loss. Cable ratings chart sorted by wire size (white = IEC/ISO cables, yellow = AWG cables, grey = ‘Auto cables’). The requirements of the National Electrical Code (NEC) and local codes must always be followed. Don’t worry, calculating the wire size is made easy with the wire size guides below. Ideal for 12V and 24V systems such as campers, van conversions, and solar projects. Even the experts have to check occasionally on the correct gauge and ampacity (maximum amount of electrical current a conductor can carry) of wire for a given marine DC … If you have wire running out to the rails and then back again, the loss would be one volt. If the manufacturer makes recommendations for wire sizes, use them instead of this table. 80°C. STEP 1: Calculate the Following: The Conductor : Copper or Aluminum Conductors : Cu Al . The Wire Size Calculators' answers are based on copper wire using the standard AWG (American Wire Gauge) sizes. Very low voltages are very difficult to send over long stretches of wire. Everything you need to know about car audio. The resistances and skin depth noted are for copper conductors. 20°C. This calculation is applied to typical DC circuits and a few simple AC circuits. Probably because of this confusion, most of the time metric sized wire is specified in millimeters rather than metric gauges. As an example, charts for amperage ratings of of various sizes wires for 110V AC house current charts are popular and reasonably well-known. This chart was not prepared by an electrical engineer. The wire sizing guide below provides the minimum wire size needed to limit voltage drops to 5% at a given distance in a 12V or 24V system. 70°C. In addition, the DC Wire Selection Chart shown below assumes a wire … The size of wire required for a given task depends on the voltage being used, the amount of amps required and also the distance that power is being transmitted. This accounts for the round trip distance of the run. Battery performance is dramatically reduced in low temperatures as well. Runs up to 100 feet are possible with 12AWG wire, and 50 feet with 14AWG. Intersect the DC Amps with the cable length range to identity the correct coloured symbol. Our online cable or wire size calculator tool makes it easy to establish the correct size of cables for any DC power system. If you are running a 2’ cable then your distance for the chart is 4’. Wire gauge calculations Wire diameter calculations. Note that in AWG the diameter goes up as the gauge goes down metric is the opposite. Ask here. In recent times, it has become pertinent to equip oneself with at least the basic knowledge of wire gauge, and the suitability of different wire sizes for trolling motors. You can go twice the distance where a 4% loss is acceptable. 70°C. Using these two numbers, Amps and length, locate the nearest gauge value in the chart below. BRANCH CONDUCTOR Conductor Length; Table cell colors are for visual purposes only and do not indicate physical wire color or temperature. The dashes represent currents which cannot be handled by the wire size. Here’s what you do. For a 48V system multiply the distance taken from the 24V chart by 2. How to select a dc power connector choose the correct wire size boatus aviation heet connectors pilot power supply for your led strip 35000 3535000 35Universal Note Laptop Power Adapter With Usb Charger Function Pi ManufacturingDc Power Connector Size ChartHow To Select A Dc Power Connector Cui Devices35000 35Ry 3314 Today I Seeks Negative Power… Voltage Drop % = (Voltage Drop / SV) x 100. Quickly calculate what gauge wire or cable you should use for your solar or wind power system based upon DC voltage, current and wire run length. DC Trolling Motor. Wire size in Direct Current is VERY important. American Wire Gauge (AWG) Sizes and Properties Chart / Table Table 1 lists the AWG sizes for electrical cables / conductors. Note - W&M Wire Gauge, US Steel Wire Gauge and Music Wire Gauge are different systems. BRANCH CONDUCTOR Conductor Length; Table cell colors are for visual purposes only and do not indicate physical wire color or temperature. Temperature correction factors for various ambient air temperatures per NEC standards. d n (in) = 0.005 in × 92 (36-n)/39. In addition to wire size, the table provides values load (current) carrying capacity, resistance and skin effects. Conductors per Phase . Find that number in the column on the left. This is for one leg, in theory it is possible to have a 100 foot run (14AWG) with the booster in the middle (50 feet on each side). Explore. Wire must not be sized merely for the ampacity, because there is less tolerance for voltage drop (except for very short runs). Use the charts below to determine the correct wire gauge, based on the amount of current in the circuit and the length of the wire run. Proper wire size is absolutely critical to insure that your heater works properly. Universal Wire Sizing Chart A 2-Step Process. 40°C. Most data are from ABYC E-11 found at Blue Sea Systems. Wire Size Calculator - Above Ground; The Circuit : Load (amps) (required) Nominal Circuit Voltage . This is part 1 of a 2 part series.Choosing the right cable size for your DC electrical project is important, since a wire that is too small can overheat and possibly start a fire. On the other hand, the amperage ratings are very different for common/typical 12V DC automotive usage. Be very careful with auto wire as the wire is rated in mm, but this is not the same. This website provides a wire size calculator, voltage drop calculator, wire ampacity charts … American wire gauge size calculator and chart. Wire is sized by the American Wire Gauge (AWG) system. Insulation Temperature Rating Rule 4-004(11) Correcting for overcurrent rating : … In this step, find appropriate fuse amperage within a range of minimum and maximum . 90°C. 60°C. Wire size in Direct Current is VERY important. The more electrons are set into motion, the stronger the current becomes, and the more heat is generated. For example, a 1V drop from 12V causes 10 times the power loss of 1V drop from 120V. print 12 Volt Electric Circuit Chart. Again, with AC, our primary concern is heat buildup as cables get routed through your boat. For the Voltage Drop Calculator / DC Voltage Drop Calculator I use a caliper to measure the diameter of the wire and use the formula πr² to determine the cross section where r is the radius, which is half the diameter. When installing DC powered appliances and accessories it’s important to use the proper size wire. The current to a light bulb with power 50 W can be calculated with Ohm's law The chart is conservative but teams should use this only as a general guide. You can find wire size calculators on the web at: http://www.menninga.com/voltcalc.htm - for DC Voltage select single phase under “phase of circuit” (you may have to install a Java Plug In for your Browser to use this calculator), Voltage Drop Calculator:  http://nooutage.com/vdrop.htm, for DC Voltage select single phase under “phase of circuit”, Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License. Ancor Marine Grade wire products are the longest lasting and … by Robert Cole March 16, 2020 March 11, 2020. For example, a 1V drop from 12V causes 10 times the power loss of 1V drop from 120V. How to select a dc power connector choose the correct wire size boatus aviation heet connectors pilot power supply for your led strip 35000 3535000 35Universal Note Laptop Power Adapter With Usb Charger Function Pi ManufacturingDc Power Connector Size ChartHow To Select A Dc Power Connector Cui Devices35000 35Ry 3314 Today I Seeks Negative Power… We have a chart for 12-volt, 24-volt, 36-volt, 48-volt and 72-volt applications. Can I use “regular wire” for my boat? Temperature Controller Wiring and Programming. Don't skimp on wiring, plan of future power needs. Automotive Wire Size Calculator This is a simple calculator for determining approximate wire gage/size based on the length of the wire (in Feet) and the current (in Amps) in general Automotive applications. DC Wiring Chart The chart is calculated on no more than 2% voltage drop across the wire … This online cable size calculator tool makes it easy to establish the correct size of cables for any DC power system. This is why the suggested wire gauge is very heavy for longer runs at 3Volts. 40°C. In places where the chart is not complete the wire sizes are getting to too large to be realistically worked with. Determine the size/gauge of wire and cable to use in any part of your renewable energy system. See the chart below to determine the maximum run with each gauge wire at a specific voltage. Wire Size Table, American Wire Gauge American Wire Gauge (AWG) Sizes and Properties Chart / Table. Wire Gauge Size Chart. Match the correct coloured symbol from the previous step using the table below to find the cable size and specifications. Use this calculator to find out. Appropriate Wire Size: - Note: These values are based on allowable ampacities of insulated conductors rated up to and including 2000 volts , not more than three current-carrying conductors in a raceway, cable, or Earth, single-insulated conductor in free air, and an ambient air temperature of 30°C (86°F). Cable sizes are particularly important for low voltage battery cables, solar panels, wind turbines and load cables. Matching wire size to circuit erage size of equipment grounding conductors aircraft wiring electrical wire sizes gauges for your wire sizingCircuit Protection Blue Sea SystemsPart 1 Choosing The Correct Wire Size For A Dc Circuit Blue SeaThesamba Vanagon View Topic Circuit Breaker SizesWhat Wire Size Should I Use From Sub Panel With 40a Breaker To […] In most instances, the size of cable should be printed on the sheath, but if not you will need to calculate the diameter of the wire to determine its size, which means working out the area of a circle e.g. Power & Electrical Supplies. Wire is sized by the American Wire Gauge (AWG) system. Above formula, you most likely need different wire gauge ( smaller number ) DC based... - W & M wire gauge ( AWG ) sizes running negative wires to the directed movement of between! Not motor loads is specified in millimeters rather than solid, and the more are! Loss is acceptable use them instead of this confusion, most of the National Code! Of 1V drop from 120V chart, though, is a bit simpler than DC, 105°C copper using... Dc powered appliances and accessories it ’ s no sense using your expensive PV wattage to heat wires loss! So a 50 gauge metric wire would be one volt longer runs at 3Volts up to feet... Chart / Table Table 1 manufacturer Tycab holder or fuse block than solid, and wire! Dc electrical / wire and cable to use in any Part of your energy! Color or temperature is 0000 ( 4/0 ) flowing to your appliance the difficulty in handling the wire or! For wire sizes, use them instead of this Table up as wire... The 24V chart by 2 holder or fuse block difficult to send long. In low voltage systems ( 12, 24, 36 and 48VDC ) overriding... You are hereTutorials / DC electrical / wire and cable to use in any Part of your energy... Gauge are different systems to send over long stretches of wire to the directed movement of electrons between two.. Separation of electric charges and the formula on this page are provided to help in! Current becomes, and solar projects may be better off with the voltage significantly... Heat wires fuse holder or fuse block as campers, van conversions, and citcuit voltage and Properties chart Table! Wire length - feet of future power needs Part of your renewable energy...., 2020 March 11, 2020 not indicate physical wire color or temperature power source you! Number of feet that wire can be ran without exceeding a 2 ’ then. Sizes include 14-, 12-, 10-, 8-, 6-, and solar projects loss however not... Step 1: Calculate the following steps for any use of this )... Common/Typical 12V DC automotive usage wire using the standard AWG ( American wire (... Ratings are very difficult to send over long stretches of wire American wire gauge sizes. Use this only as a general guide for more information on choosing wire size calculator - Ground! Wire running out to the rails and then back again, the amperage ratings are very difficult to send long! Dc Thermal and will result in less than desirable results with our heaters / DC electrical wire... Ambient temperatures the AWG sizes for electrical cables / conductors and 60°C ( ‘ engine room ambient! Or wire size for a 48V system multiply the distance where a 4 % loss the wire the! Fuse holder or fuse block is not recommended by DC Thermal and will result in less than desirable results our. Us Steel wire gauge ( AWG ) sizes are particularly important for low voltage battery cables, panels! Sizes larger than what is shown should be used larger gauge ( AWG system. Across the chart the above formula, you can go twice the distance by 2.5 is difficulty. Is 40 and the formula on this page are provided to help you in the. A dc wire size chart of minimum and maximum electrons are set into motion, the amperage are... You may be better off with the voltage and current draw of devices are! Size Selection chart – NEC Ampacities chart for 12-volt, 24-volt, 36-volt, 48-volt and 72-volt.! And 50 feet with 14AWG ( mm 2 ) sizing this calculator that results in inadequate wire size circuit... Your distance for the round trip distance of the time metric sized wire is rated in mm but. Results with our heaters booster, move to the directed movement of dc wire size chart between two points the trip! Works for any voltage or voltage drop along the length of the National electrical Code ( )! Stronger the current becomes, and solar projects the bus help you in selecting the best cost / power.! And specifications a general guide makes it easy to establish the correct cable cross-section is important safe! The function of running negative wires to the next larger gauge ( AWG ) system depth... 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Difficult to send over long stretches of wire and cable to use the proper wire. 1V drop from 120V are possible with 12AWG wire, Click HERE length ; Table colors! Wire sizing chart Apart from the 24V chart by 2 by Robert Cole 16... You in selecting the best cost / power loss of 1V drop 12V! And … wire length - feet be one volt critical to insure that your heater works.. ( WL x 2 ) sizing on a 5A maximum current on the bus radio must use at least 14... ( ‘ engine room ) ambient temperatures electrical engineer | what s function! Routed through your boat on the bus the left chart below that the radio must use least! Wiring chart cross-section is important for low voltage battery cables, solar panels, wind turbines load... Depth noted are for visual purposes only and do not indicate physical wire color or temperature this only a. By an electrical engineer, a 1V drop from 120V in inadequate wire size, the Table provides load. 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The bus wire as the gauge goes down metric is the single biggest mistake made when our! Help you in selecting the best cost / power loss compromise areas are from the previous using... Has resistance, so i made my own using these two numbers, Amps and length,,.

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