For other uses, see, Italian explorer and merchant noted for travel to central and eastern Asia, Notable foreigners who visited pre-Qing China, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFNoule&Pelliot1938 (, Zorzi, Alvise, Vita di Marco Polo veneziano, Rusconi Editore, 1982. Peter D'Abano kept the drawing in his volume "Conciliator Differentiarum, quæ inter Philosophos et Medicos Versantur". The Book of Ser Marco Polo the Venetian: Author: Marco Polo: Publisher: Unknown: Release Date: 1903: Category: Asia: Total Pages: 86: ISBN: UOM:39076006502020: Language: English, … [81] It is believed that Polo related his memoirs orally to Rustichello da Pisa while both were prisoners of the Genova Republic. His wife, Donata, and his three daughters were appointed by him as co-executrices. According to the 15th-century humanist Giovanni Battista Ramusio , his fellow citizens awarded him this nickname when he came back to Venice because he kept on saying that Kublai Khan's wealth was counted in millions. "Grant Sire, nos avon avech nos en nostre mesnie homes qe firont tielz mangan qe giteront si grant pieres qe celes de la cité ne poront sofrir mes se renderont maintenant. The 1938 English translation by A.C. Moule and Paul Pelliot is based on a Latin manuscript found in the library of the Cathedral of Toledo in 1932, and is 50% longer than other versions. Unfortunately, the party was soon attacked by bandits, who used the cover of a sandstorm to ambush them. CONCERNING THE PALACE OF THE GREAT KAAN You must know Gertrude Bell's personal copy is available in the Robinson Library's Special Collections room. Marco told him that during his return trip to the South China Sea, he had spotted what he describes in a drawing as a star "shaped like a sack" (in Latin: ut sacco) with a big tail (magna habens caudam), most likely a comet. Audio An illustration of a 3.5" floppy disk. Polo, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian, 27. [14][15] Some old Venetian historical sources considered Polo's ancestors to be of far Dalmatian origin.[16][17][18]. The Muslim traveller Ibn Battuta, who asked about the wall when he visited China during the Yuan dynasty, could find no one who had either seen it or knew of anyone who had seen it, suggesting that while ruins of the wall constructed in the earlier periods might have existed, they were not significant or noteworthy at that time. According to Haw, this is a reasonable claim if Polo was, for example, a keshig – a member of the imperial guard by the same name, which included as many as 14,000 individuals at the time. [154], Croatian state-owned shipping company's (Jadrolinija) ship connecting Split with Ancona in Italy is named after Marco Polo.[155]. of Marco Polo's book": v. 2, p. 449-462, There are no reviews yet. Gio. (1971). [129], Haw explains how the earliest manuscripts of Polo's accounts provide contradicting information about his role in Yangzhou, with some stating he was just a simple resident, others stating he was a governor, and Ramusio's manuscript claiming he was simply holding that office as a temporary substitute for someone else, yet all the manuscripts concur that he worked as an esteemed emissary for the khan. Like Polo, Columbus was a sailor and adventurer. The diplomatic communications between Pope Innocent IV and Pope Gregory X with the Mongols[88] were probably another reason for this endorsement. Asiatische Studien 51.3 (1997): 719-728, Igor de Rachewiltz, "Marco Polo Went to China,". By this time, Marco was 21 years old. Et meser Marc Pol meisme, celui de cui trate ceste livre, seingneurie ceste cité por trois anz. [93] Many have questioned whether he had visited the places he mentioned in his itinerary, whether he had appropriated the accounts of his father and uncle or other travelers, and some doubted whether he even reached China, or that if he did, perhaps never went beyond Khanbaliq (Beijing). "[143], Other lesser-known European explorers had already travelled to China, such as Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, but Polo's book meant that his journey was the first to be widely known. [128][125], Stephen G. Haw challenges this idea that Polo exaggerated his own importance, writing that, "contrary to what has often been said ... Marco does not claim any very exalted position for himself in the Yuan empire. The Book of Ser Marco Polo the Venetian concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East [excerpts] Marco Polo, c. 1310-1320 Translated by Henry Yule. 1. Please refer to the PDF format of this volume for an undistorted view of the foldout(s). His accounts are therefore unlikely to have been obtained second hand. Such detailed descriptions are not found in other non-Chinese sources, and their accuracy is supported by archaeological evidence as well as Chinese records compiled after Polo had left China. [116] Haw also argues in his book Marco Polo's China that Marco's account is much more correct and accurate than has often been supposed and that it is extremely unlikely that he could have obtained all the information in his book from second-hand sources. [56][58] Due to the Venetian law stating that the day ends at sunset, the exact date of Marco Polo's death cannot be determined, but according to some scholars it was between the sunsets of January 8 and 9, 1324. [53] On January 8, 1324, despite physicians' efforts to treat him, Polo was on his deathbed. The Book of Ser Marco Polo: The Venetian Concerning Kingdoms and Marvels of the East Volume 1, translated and edited by Colonel Sir Henry Yule (London: John Murray, 1903) BOOK SECOND. (2010). [7], Kublai initially refused several times to let the Polos return to Europe, as he appreciated their company and they became useful to him. In 1292, Kublai's great-nephew, then ruler of Persia, sent representatives to China in search of a potential wife, and they asked the Polos to accompany them, so they were permitted to return to Persia with the wedding party—which left that same year from Zaitun in southern China on a fleet of 14 junks. [29], The British scholar Ronald Latham has pointed out that The Book of Marvels was, in fact, a collaboration written in 1298–1299 between Polo and a professional writer of romances, Rustichello of Pisa. ", Then the two brothers and their son Marc said: "Great Lord, in our entourage we have men who will build such mangonels which launch such great stones, that the inhabitants of the city will not endure it and will immediately surrender. According to de Rachewiltz, the concordance of Polo's detailed account of the princess with other independent sources that gave only incomplete information is proof of the veracity of Polo's story and his presence in China. [132][133], A number of errors in Marco Polo's account have been noted: for example, he described the bridge later known as Marco Polo Bridge as having twenty-four arches instead of eleven or thirteen. [74], In 1271, Niccolò, Maffeo and Marco Polo embarked on their voyage to fulfil Kublai's request. He was probably caught by Genoans in a skirmish in 1296, off the Anatolian coast between Adana and the Gulf of Alexandretta[42] (and not during the battle of Curzola (September 1298), off the Dalmatian coast,[43] a claim which is due to a later tradition (16th century) recorded by Giovanni Battista Ramusio. While Polo describes paper money and the burning of coal, he fails to mention the Great Wall of China, tea, Chinese characters, chopsticks, or footbinding. Marco was appointed to serve as Khan's foreign emissary, and he was sent on many diplomatic missions throughout the empire and Southeast Asia, such as in present-day Burma, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. Haw points out that Polo himself appears to state only that he had been an emissary of the khan, in a position with some esteem. [85] [124], If this identification is correct, there is a record about Marco Polo in Chinese sources. [19], The first English translation is the Elizabethan version by John Frampton published in 1579, The most noble and famous travels of Marco Polo, based on Santaella's Castilian translation of 1503 (the first version in that language). [95], Modern studies have further shown that details given in Marco Polo's book, such as the currencies used, salt productions and revenues, are accurate and unique. freres et lor filz meser Marc. The Polos managed to fight and escape through a nearby town, but many members of the caravan were killed or enslaved. [98], According to some Croatian sources, the exact date and place of birth are "archivally"[clarification needed] unknown. In fact, Polo does not even imply that he had led 1,000 personnel. These observations are only compatible with Marco's stay in China, Sumatra and the South China Sea[119] and are recorded in Pietro's book Conciliator Differentiarum, but not in Marco's Book of Travels. See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive. [123] According to the "Yuanshi" records, Boluo was released at the request of the emperor himself, and was then transferred to the region of Ningxia, in the northeast of present-day China, in the spring of 1275. [107] In this respect, Igor de Rachewiltz recalls that the claim that the three Polo were present at the siege of Xiang-yang is not present in all manuscripts, but Niccolò and Matteo could have made this suggestion. [92] Later scholars such as John W. Haeger argued that Marco Polo might not have visited Southern China due to the lack of details in his description of southern Chinese cities compared to northern ones, while Herbert Franke also raised the possibility that Marco Polo might not have been to China at all, and wondered if he might have based his accounts on Persian sources due to his use of Persian expressions. They note that the Great Wall familiar to us today is a Ming structure built some two centuries after Marco Polo's travels; and that the Mongol rulers whom Polo served controlled territories both north and south of today's wall, and would have no reasons to maintain any fortifications that may have remained there from the earlier dynasties. The British historian David Morgan thought that Polo had likely exaggerated and lied about his status in China,[122] while Ronald Latham believed that such exaggerations were embellishments by his ghostwriter Rustichello da Pisa.[84]. He also relates that before dying, Marco Polo insisted that "he had told only a half of the things he had seen". Though he was not the first European to reach China (see Europeans in Medieval China), Marco Polo was the first to explore some parts of Asia and to leave a detailed chronicle of his experience. Questions are posted that, in the majority of cases, have already been answered satisfactorily ... her attempt is unprofessional; she is poorly equipped in the basic tools of the trade, i.e., adequate linguistic competence and research methodology ... and her major arguments cannot withstand close scrutiny. He was released in 1299, became a wealthy merchant, married, and had three children. "[139], In 2012, the University of Tübingen Sinologist and historian Hans Ulrich Vogel released a detailed analysis of Polo's description of currencies, salt production and revenues, and argued that the evidence supports his presence in China because he included details which he could not have otherwise known. [58], An authoritative version of Marco Polo's book does not and cannot exist, for the early manuscripts differ significantly, and the reconstruction of the original text is a matter of textual criticism. [125], The sinologist Paul Pelliot thought that Polo might have served as an officer of the government salt monopoly in Yangzhou, which was a position of some significance that could explain the exaggeration. On their arrival there, Messer Nicolas found that his wife was dead and that she had left behind her a son of fifteen years of age, whose name was Marco". THE BOOK SER MARCO P.OLO, THE VENETIAN, Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East. ↑ 1.0 1.1 Here Marco speaks of the remarkable population of the Andaman Islands--Oriental negroes in the lowest state of barbarism--who have remained in their isolated and degraded condition, so near the shores of great civilised countries, for so many ages. Rustichello wrote Devisement du Monde in Franco-Venetian. [52] Interestingly, this circumstance does not appear in Polo's book of Travels. E. Pref. Marco Polo (/ˈmɑːrkoʊ ˈpoʊloʊ/ (listen); Venetian: [ˈmaɾko ˈpolo]; Italian: [ˈmarko ˈpɔːlo]; 15 September, 1254 – January 8, 1324)[1] was a Venetian merchant,[2][3] explorer, and writer who travelled through Asia along the Silk Road between 1271 and 1295. B. [29], Marco Polo returned to Venice in 1295 with his fortune converted into gemstones. ", Le Moyen Age, vol. [136] Rachewiltz argued that Marco Polo's account, in fact, allows the Persian and Chinese sources to be reconciled – by relaying the information that two of the three envoys sent (mentioned in the Chinese source and whose names accord with those given by Polo) had died during the voyage, it explains why only the third who survived, Coja/Khoja, was mentioned by Rashìd al-Dìn. Reviewing Haw's book, Peter Jackson (author of The Mongols and the West) has said that Haw "must surely now have settled the controversy surrounding the historicity of Polo's visit to China". 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